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TND332/D Rev. 2008
Power Supply (Digital-to-Analog Converter Box)
Reference Design Documentation Package
Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2008
February, 2008 Rev.
Publication Order Number: TND332/D
Disclaimer: Semiconductor providing this reference design documentation package recipient assumes risk associated with and/or commercialization this design package. licenses Semiconductor's third party's Intellectual Property conveyed transfer this documentation. This reference design documentation package provided only assist customers evaluation feasibility assessment reference design. expected that users make further refinements meet specific performance goals.
TND332 Power Supply (Digital-to-Analog Converter Box)
Reference Design Documentation Package
Overview This reference document describes built-and-tested, GreenPointt solution Digital-to-Analog converter power supply. power supply design build around Semiconductor's NCP1308 Current-Mode Controller, primary side, using Free Running Quasi-Resonant.
secondary side offers three outputs derived from output using NCP1595 buck (step-down) DC-DC topology with synchronous rectification. Figure shows simplified block diagram reference design circuit.
Figure Power Supply Digital-to-Analog Converter
Introduction result bill passed Congress, midnight February 2009, full-power television stations United States will stop broadcasting analog switch 100% digital broadcasting. After that date, conventional with analog-NTSC tuners will unable receive over-the-air broadcasts. Anyone watches "rabbit ears" rooftop antenna opposed cable satellite), whose does have built-in separate digital tuner, will stop receiving programs that most owners HDTVs, getting over-the-air high-definition programming will simple putting high definition antenna. effect, most that display HDTV sold with built-in ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committee) tuners required receive high-definition well lower-resolution digital broadcasts over air. Because switch-off analog broadcasts would deprive many viewers their only source television, Congress also created subsidy program. government's National Telecommunications Information Administration (NTIA), this program will provide coupons which used Digital-to-Analog (DTA) converter box. receive digital television broadcasts converts them into standard-definition programming viewed conventional with analog-NTSC tuners. More information over-the-air broadcasting television method from analog digital found www.dtvtransition.org. More information DTAs coupon program: www.ntia.doc.gov. AC-DC Power Supply Requirements version ENERGY STAR® guidelines DTAs (more details found site provide following definitions: DTA: Stand-alone device that does contain features functions except those necessary enable consumer convert channel broadcast
digital television service into format that consumer display television receivers designed receive display signals only analog television service, also include remote control device. addition meeting requirements laid this Version ENERGY STAR specification, DTAs must also meet minimum technical requirements laid Technical Appendices National Telecommunications Information Administration's (NTIA) final rule-making Digital Television Converter Coupon Program (see http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ final rulemaking). Mode: state which actively delivering principal functions some applicable secondary functions. Mode: state which there negligible power consumption Sleep Mode: state which device greater power consumption, capability, responsiveness than does state, less similar) power consumption, capability responsiveness than does state.
Energy Efficiency Specification
Mode Mode Sleep Mode Input Power Consumption under Test Conditions Effective Date: Jan. 2007 watts watts (NTIA's requirement
Source: ENERGY STAR NTIA
ENERGY STAR requirements have maximum input power more than This power requirement puts severe constraints DTA's efficiency obviously power supply's efficiency. single digit power levels such this, achieving efficiencies percent range difficult because inherent voltage outputs required DTA's ASIC circuitry (typically volts below), significant fraction total power that power supply's internal quiescent current represents.
Power Supply Specification reference design described this document provides outputs with universal input efficiency greater than 72%. Other output voltages possible with simple changes sensing networks outputs. design also provides option inhibiting output "sleep mode" required. power supply's main converter designed around Semiconductor's NCP1308 current mode controller external Mosfet quasi-resonant (QR) flyback topology. volt output utilizes synchronous rectifier Mosfet lower voltage output converters implemented using NCP1595 monolithic, synchronous buck regulator operating MHz. output also functions source buck regulators. This particular combination parts provides simple effective triple output switcher with effective power output approximately watts depending output voltage current combination subsequent overall system efficiency (see efficiency results Table Typical protection functions such over-current over-voltage included addition input conducted filter. Input: Vac, 50/60 two-wire input (line neutral) Input Power (Sleep mode): specified Energy Star) Standby Input Power load): Less than Input Fuse: Inrush Limiting: ohms approximately Input Filter: Common differential mode conducted filter
Outputs (also Table
Total output power exceed approximately watts
Regulation: Better than outputs Output Ripple (Vpk/pk): output Efficiency: Better than 72%; actual value will depend output voltage current combinations (see efficiency results Table Protection: Over-current over-voltage Temperature Range/Cooling: 55°C; convection cooled Control Features: Inhibit Vout sleep mode operation (optional)
Circuit Operation Referring power supply circuit schematic Figure operation supply follows: Inrush current into bulk capacitor limited supply turn-on Resistor winding resistance filter inductor This inductor along with capacitors form differential mode filter while winding-to-winding leakage inductance comprise common mode filter. input full-wave rectified produces "bulk" level across quasi-resonant flyback converter implemented using Semiconductor's quasi-resonant NCP1308 current mode controller (U1) Mosfet (Q7). This controller contains internal circuitry self-protection from over-current over-voltage conditions. Although control chip self-powered inclusion ON's patented dynamic self supply (DSS) feature, auxiliary winding flyback
2.2M 0.5W 0.5W MRA4007T MRA4007T 100K MMSD4148T
transformer associated components provide "bootstrapped" supply bootstrapped significantly lowers dissipation during normal operation reduces standby no-load power consumption supply less than Resistor limits voltage provides convenient means setting trip level chip event optocoupler open sense loop failure. snubber network provides voltage spike suppression external Mosfet This voltage spike generated leakage inductance primary winding destructive properly managed. Such snubber networks essential simple, single switch flyback circuits such this one. Note conventional 50/60 diode inclusion resistor series with This arrangement, along with only suppresses voltage spike Mosfet turn-off, also dampens resonant ringing associated with T1's leakage inductance
9,10 1500uF 4.7uH 6.3V 470uF NTB30N06L NTD25P03L
47uF 400V 270pF
TL431A 0.1uF 4.99K 4.75K
NCP1595 2.2uF 8.2uH 3.3V
22uF 8.2uH 12.5K
Transformer Design design flyback transformer requires minimizing typical transformer parasitic parameters such leakage inductance winding capacitance. This becomes increasingly difficult small transformer core structures required increased primary secondary turns core's cross sectional area decreases with overall core size. balance between sufficient turns limit magnetic flux density kilogauss) versus increased leakage inductance become tricky small cores. this design EF-16 core used possible primary wound with just layers winding volt secondary just layer each. Tests indicated that voltage spike generated resultant leakage inductance minimal energy snubber network R20, adequate suppress voltage spike with minimal impact efficiency. Figure gives details transformer design. main secondary output produces volts with associated circuitry thru thru comprising synchronous flyback rectifier maximum efficiency. When Mosfet switches off, secondary flyback current charging output capacitor sensed small current sense transformer which develops sufficient voltage across turn complementary driver circuit This driver turn switches gate which functions very forward voltage drop rectifier volt secondary. When secondary current flows, off-state reverse blocking mode. reduced output ripple noise addition filter composed inductor provided. addition, P-Mosfet driver transistor included (optional) allow shutdown volt output "sleep mode" similar requirement needed reduce power drain absolute minimum. volt output regulated sensing voltage across primary output capacitor dividing this voltage down match volt internal reference programmable zener (TL431A). functions error amplifier provides feedback primary side controller through optocoupler Control loop phase gain compensation provided while provides high frequency noise decoupling feedback input other voltage outputs (3.3 derived from volt output using couple NCP1595 monolithic, synchronous buck regulators U4). These buck converters switch MHz, very small output inductors capacitors (C15 C17) needed. Because very high input output ripple frequency these buck chips, impedance multilayer ceramic capacitors should used through C17. standard aluminum electrolytic required minimal output voltage droop when particular microprocessor that this supply tested with started from sleep mode. large output capacity needed output this test application option considered main power source DTA's microprocessor. voltages other than selected levels, merely needs modify voltage sense divider network trim resistor (R17 R19) provide correct feedback level buck controller's sense input (see NCP1595 data sheet www.onsemi.com website device application details).
MAGNETICS DESIGN DATA SHEET Project Customer: Semiconductor power supply, Version Part Description: watt flyback xfmr, version Rev. Schematic Core Type: EF16 (E16/8/5); 3C95 material (Ferroxcube) similar Core Gap: 1.75 inductance Inductance: 1.75 +/-10% Bobbin Type: horizontal mount EF16 Windings order): Winding type Vcc/Boost Primary Secondary (7,8 5,6)
Turns Material Gauge Insulation Data turns #34HN spiral wound over layer. Insulate with layer tape (1000V insulation next winding) turns #34HN over layers turns/layer); Insulate next winding with tape. turns strands #26HN wound bifilar over layer with margins cuffed ends. Self leads pins shown below. Insulate with final layer tape.
Vacuum varnish assembly
Hipot: from boost/primary secondary Schematic Lead Breakout Pinout (Bottom View facing pins)
Active Mode Efficiency
Since efficiency circuit simplicity were primary goals this design, necessary voltage current configurations specific circuit applications will obviously vary, efficiency measured several
different load configurations. results shown Table would expected configuration with greatest amount loading output resulted highest overall efficiency.
Table Power Supply Efficiency versus Loading Configuration
Load Configuration Load Load 0.25 Load 0.25 0.75 Pout Total 5.45 5.45 5.47W Total 7.46 7.45 7.29 Efficiency
Sleep Mode Mode
Sleep mode: input power mode load power): input power
output ripple load volt channel shown Figure while Figure displays ripple volt output with load amp. Although shown, ripple volt output with load essentially identical that volt channel. Measurements were taken input total power load approximately watts. Operating input negligible effects output ripple efficiency.
Figure Volt Output Ripple
Figure Volt Output Ripple
Figure displays Mosfet's drain voltage profile with input total load watts. Note that from waveform this particular load, circuit operating discontinuous conduction mode where Mosfet switches back flyback ring-out cycle after core reset. Note also that Mosfet turn-on occurs valley point ring-out waveform. Switching this point allows very efficient quasi-resonant turn-on when
voltage Mosfet drain minimum. high frequency ringing beginning flyback pulse caused transformer's leakage inductance resonating with Mosfet's drain-to-source capacitance stray transformer winding capacitance. snubber network acts suppresses peak voltage excursion dampens residual ringing.
Figure Mosfet Drain Switching Waveform Profile
Additional Comments Recommendations Although conducted tested this particular reference design, same input filter design been used other similar Semiconductor power flyback reference designs which pass Level conducted EMI. best thermal management, NCP1595's surface mount packages should properly soldered extended copper clad areas board, this particularly important higher current outputs NCP1595 buck devices. Consult respective device data sheets more information this. design current sense transformer necessarily critical small ferrite core with 30:1 50:1 turns ratio utilized. design however, main flyback transformer, critical efficiency optimum performance power supply. Re-designing transformer smaller core structure (smaller core cross sectional area recommended. Using cores with larger result less overall turns possible incremental improvement efficiency, however specified inductance value should maintained proper circuit operation. recommended that data sheets Semiconductor NCP1308 NCP1595 monolithic controllers thoroughly studied when applying this reference design.
Part SEMICONDUCTORS MRA4007T3G MMSD4148T1 MMBT2222AWT1 MMBT2907AWT1 NCP1308 FQPF2N60C NTD25P03LG NTB30N06LT4G NCP1595AMNR2G Optocoupler TL431ACD (SOIC-8) CAPACITORS cap, (box package) cap, disc package Ceramic cap, disc Ceramic cap, monolythic Ceramic cap, monolythic Ceramic cap, monolythic Ceramic cap, monolythic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic RESISTORS Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, R12, R13, ohm, ceramic, axial lead Meg, axial lead, metal film 1210 ohm, 1206 ohms ohms 4.99 4.75 Ohmite Ohmite (1210) (1206) (1206) (1206) (1206) (1206) (1206) (1206) (1206) (1206) (1206) (1206) (1206) (1206) C12, C14, C15, C10, "X2" capacitor, "Y2" cap, capacitor (snubber) ceramic impedance ceramic multilayer ceramic 1500 (low ESR) Vishay Vishay Vishay Vishay Vishay Vishay Vishay UCC, Rubycon UCC, Rubycon UCC, Rubycon UCC, Rubycon UCC, Rubycon diode signal diode transistor transistor Ouasi-resonant controller Mosfet P-channel Mosfet, N-channel Mosfet, logic level Synchronous buck regulator SFH6156A-4 pin) similar Programmable zener Semiconductor Semiconductor Semiconductor Semiconductor Semiconductor Fairchild Semiconductor Semiconductor Semiconductor Vishay Semiconductor Description Comments
Part RESISTORS Resistor, Resistor, Resistor, MISCELLANEOUS Fuse (TR5 type) MAGNETICS Inductor Choke, Choke, Flyback Transformer (custom) Current sense transformer (1:50) BU16-4530R5BL RFB0807-4R7L RFB0807-8R2L Primary 1.75 T6522-AL Coilcraft Coilcraft Coilcraft Figure Coilcraft Bussmann ohms 12.5 (1206) (1206) (1206) Description Comments
Figure Board Picture
ENERGY STAR: Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes
National Telecommunications Information Administration (NTIA): Digital Television Transition Public Safety 2005 http://www.ntia.doc.gov/
NTB30N06L: Power MOSFET Amps, Volts,
Logic Level TL431A: Programmable Precision Reference MMSD4148/D: Switching Diode Design note DN06008/D: NCP1308: Dual Output Power Supply Design note DN06029/D: NCP1308_LM2575: Universal Input, Output quasi-resonant flyback converter Application Note AND8112/D: Quasi-Resonant SPICE Model Eases Feedback Loop Designs Application Note AND8127/D: Implementing NCP1207 AC-DC Converter with Synchronous Rectifier Application Note AND8129/D: Power Supply Operating Quasi-Square Wave Resonant Mode
Additional Collateral from Semiconductor:
NCP1308: Current-Mode Controller Free Running
Quasi-Resonant Operation NCP1595: Synchronous Converter with input MMBT2222AW: General Purpose Transistor MMBT2907AW: General Purpose Transistor NTD25P03L: Power MOSFET Logic Level P-Channel DPAK
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